Welcome

Celebrating Over 75 Years Of Service

The American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy (AAOA) represents over 2,700 Board-certified otolaryngologists and health care providers. Otolaryngology, frequently referred to as Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT), uniquely combines medical and surgical expertise to care for patients with a variety of conditions affecting the ears, nose, and throat, as well as commonly related conditions. AAOA members devote part of their practice to the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. The AAOA actively supports its membership through education, research, and advocacy in the care of allergic patients.

"Dedicated to enhancing knowledge and skill in the care of the allergic patient."

ADVOCACY UPDATES

CMS Extends the MIPS 2017 Data Submission Deadline from March 31 to April 3 at 8 PM EDT

If you’re an eligible clinician participating in the Quality Payment Program, you now have until Tuesday, April 3,…

read more

Congress Moves Closer to Close the Books on FY 2018 Appropriations

In a span of 4 days, Congress passed legislation to fund the government through March…

read more

Act Now to Avoid MACRA Penalties

Before the close of 2017, all physicians must take action to avoid the 4 percent…

read more
  • 1
  • 2

Changes in MACRA

Macra 101 Image

Before the close of 2017, all physicians must take action to avoid the 4 percent cut that will be assessed in 2019 for not participating in the new Quality Payment Program (QPP) authorized by the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act (MACRA).  Read More

CMS Announces Changes in MACRA Implementation Timeline. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) announced major changes to the implementation of the Medicare Access and CHIP Re-authorization (MACRA).
Read More

Upcoming Dates

04/01/2018: 2018 Fellow Exam Application Deadline
Learn more

06/01/2018: Research Grant Cycle

12/01/2018: Research Grant Cycle
Learn more

07/31/18: Membership Application Deadline to be voted in at the 2018 Annual Meeting
Learn more

EDUCATION

Codes/Guidelines

CMS Announces Changes in MACRA Implementation Timeline. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) announced major changes to the implementation of the Medicare Access and CHIP Re-authorization (MACRA).
Read More

Updated Advanced Course

Drs. Damask and Parker will lead the faculty for our annual Advanced Course in Allergy & Immunology that builds on the Basic Course and delves further into allergy diagnosis, management, and treatment.
Read More

Interactive Allergy & Rhinology Course

Course directors, Christine Franzese and Sarah Wise, are excited to announce the 2018 AAOA Interactive Allergy and Rhinology Course.
Read More

IFAR

IFAR Impact Factor: 2.135

aaoaf-ifar

Now Available

Changes in Managing Practices

Mission

Working together with AAOA staff, volunteer leadership and members will enable us to have a positive impact on our members’ practices.

Read More

Live and Online CME

2018 Basic Course in Allergy & Immunology
July 5-7 | Hollywood, FL
Learn More and Register

2018 AAOA Annual Meeting
September 14-16 | Philadelphia, PA
Learn More and Register

2018 Advanced Course in Allergy & Immunology
December 6-8 | Atlanta, GA
Save the Date

AAOA Clinical Insights
Coming Soon!!!

PATIENT CORNER

Avoidance

The first most basic treatment step, once an allergen has been identified, is to eliminate or avoid contact with it, if possible. Unfortunately, avoiding some allergens (such as dust, molds, and animals) is often difficult and thus allergen avoidance alone may not be effective.

Read More

News and Updates

The AAOA Wins Gold in Association TRENDS 2017 All-Media Contest

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Contact: Marina Fassnacht Director of Marketing and Communications 11130 Sunrise Valley Dr.…

read more

Alert: Nationwide Shortage of Sterile Water for Injections

Nationwide shortage of Sterile Water for Injections is affecting multiple manufacturers. Some Specialty Pharmacies are…

read more

Choose the IndependENT 2018 AAOA Annual Meeting!

Building off the success of our radically re-designed Chicago Annual Meeting, we look forward to…

read more
Menu
AAOA Logo

About Us

AAOA SCOPE OF KNOWLEDGE: ALLERGY AND ASTHMA

You can also download The Scope of Knowledge PDF.

I Epidemiology

A. Prevalence

  • i Regional
  • ii Change Over Time

B. Populations at risk

  • i Genetic associations
  • ii Environmental associations

C. Socioeconomic impact of disease

  • i Direct cost
  • ii Indirect costs
  • iii Quality of life

II Science of the Sites of Allergic Inflammation

A. Anatomy, Histology, physiology, pathophysiology of:

  • i Nose and paranasal sinuses
  • ii Pharynx
  • iii Ear/Eustachian Tubes
  • iv Larynx/Trachea
  • v Lungs
  • vi Eye
  • vii Skin
  • viii Gastrointestinal tract

B. Basic physiology, pathophysiology, and principles of:

  • i Mucociliary function
  • ii Smell and taste
  • iii Auditory/vestibular function
  • iv Voice
  • v Respiratory function
  • vi Deglutition
  • vii Ocular protection mechanisms
    • 1 Naso–lacrimal function
    • 2 Conjunctival function
  • viii GI function

III Basic Science

A. Basic components, concepts and applications pertinent to Allergy:

  • i Immunology
    • 1. Function
      • a. General aspects
        • i Recognition
        • ii Surveillance
        • iii Amplification
        • iv Memory
      • b. Triggers of the immune response
        • i Allergens, haptens, epitopes, parasites, macromolecules
      • c. Categories of response
        • i Innate
        • ii Adaptive
    • 2. Components
      • a. Inflammatory cells
        • i Macrophages (APC)
        • ii Lymphoid
          • 1 T–cells
          • 2 B–Cells
          • 3 Null cells
        • iii Granulocytes
          • 1 Mast Cells/basophils
          • 2 Eosinophils
          • 3 Neutrophils
          • 4 Platelets
      • b. Immunoglobulins
        • i G
        • ii A
        • iii M
        • iv D
        • v E
      • c. Inflammatory mediators
        • i Cytokines
        • ii Chemokines
        • iii Vasoactive amines
        • iv Leukotrienes
        • v Prostaglandins
        • vi Complement
  • ii Endocrinology
  • iii Neurology
  • iv Molecular cell biology
  • v Genetics

B. Physiology and pathophysiology

  • i Immunology
    • 1. Cellular communication
      • a. Direct contact
        • i Antigen specific
      • b. Cytokine/Chemokine mediated
        • i Non-antigen specific
    • 2. Inflammatory pathways
      • a. Cellular
        • i Microphage
        • ii Granulocyte
          • 1 Mast Cell/Basophils
          • 2 Eosinophil
      • b Non-cellular
        • i Complement
        • ii Arachadonic Acid cascade
        • iii Other
    • 3. Immune sensitization
      • a Memory
    • 4. Hypersensitivity (Gel and Coombs)
      • a I
      • b II
      • c III
      • d IV
      • e V
      • f VI
  • ii Allergic response (Type I)
    • 1 Allergy sensitization
      • a Antigen processing
      • b T-cell
      • c B-cell
      • d IgE
      • e Mast cell
    • 2 Subsequent exposure—trigger
      • a Mast Cell
        • i Antigen crosslinking
        • ii Degranulation
          • 1 Preformed mediators
          • 2 Newly synthesized mediators
          • 3 Cytokines
      • b Early phase response
      • c Late phase response
        • i Cellular Components
      • d Priming
  • iii Microbiology
    • 1 Parasitology
    • 2 Bacteriology
    • 3 Virology
    • 4 Mycology
  • iv Endocrinology
  • v Neurology
  • vi Molecular cell biology
  • vii Genetics
  • viii Nutrition

IV Diseases, Disorders, and Conditions

A. Differential diagnosis of inflammatory disease:

  • i Nose/paranasal sinus
  • ii Otologic
  • iii Laryngopharyngeal
  • iv Tracheobronchial
  • v Thoracic/Pulmonary
  • vi Gastrointestinal
  • vii Ocular
  • viii Cutaneous

B. Immunologic disorders

  • i. Allergic diseases
    • 1. Allergic Rhinitis
    • 2. Allergic conjunctivitis
    • 3. Otologic disease
      • a. Otitis media
      • b. Meniere’s
      • c. Otitis externa
      • d. Eustachian tube dysfunction
    • 4. Asthma
    • 5 Dermatitis
      • a. Eczema
      • b. Contact
      • c. Urticaria/Angioedema
    • 6. Allergic laryngitis
    • 7. Gastrointestinal
      • a. Eosinophilic esophagitis
  • ii Co-morbid conditions impacted by allergy
    • 1. Rhinosinusitiss
    • 2. Otitis media
    • 3. Eustachian tube dysfunction
    • 4. Disordered sleep
    • 5. Laryngeal/pharyngeal/esophageal disorders
      • a. GERD
    • 6. Asthma
  • iii Immunodeficiency
  • iv Autoimmune diseases

V Diagnostics and Assessment Procedures

A. History

  • i Symptoms
    • 1. Onset, duration, severity
    • 2. Triggers
    • 3. Exacerbating or ameliorating factors
  • ii Exposures
    • 1. Temporal relationships
      • a. Intermittent
      • b. Persistent
    • 2. Identifiable antigen
      • a. Aeroantigens (Inhalants)
      • b. Ingestants
      • c. Contactants
      • d. Injectants
  • iii Co-morbid conditions
    • 1. Rhinosinusitiss
    • 2. Otitis media
    • 3. Eustachian tube dysfunction
    • 4. Disordered sleep
    • 5. Laryngeal/pharyngeal/esophageal disorders
      • a. GERD
    • 6. Asthma
    • 7. Ocular
  • iv Family/childhood history

B. Physical examination

  • i Face
  • ii Ears
  • iii Nose/Paranasal sinues
  • iv Oro/Nasopharynx
  • v Laryngotracheal
  • vi Pulmonary
  • vii Skin

C. Adjunctive testing: Indications, limitations, and normal and pathologic findings:

  • i Ears
    • 1. Audiovestibular testing
  • ii Nose
    • 1. Acoustic rhinometry/rhinomanometry
    • 2. Nasal cytology/biopsy
    • 3. Nasal/paranasal sinus culture
    • 4. Nasal endoscopy
    • 5. Olfactory testing
    • 6. Radiologic testing
  • iii Larynx
    • 1. Laryngoscopy
  • iv Pulmonary
    • 1. Pulmonary function testing
    • 2. Radiologic testing
  • v Sleep
    • 1. Polysomnography

D. Allergy testing:

    • i Antigen selection
      • 1. Antigen characteristics
        • a. Aeroallergen physical characteristics
        • b. Biologic activity/potency
        • c. Antigen cross reactivity
        • d. Antigen extraction/standardization
      • 2. Aeroallergen distribution
        • a. Principles of distribution
        • b. Local and Regional differences
      • ii Aeroallergen tests
        • 1. Expanded specific allergen testing
          • a. In vivo
            • i Principles of in vivo testing
              • 1. Pathophysiology of the skin whealing response
                • a. Immediate response
                • b. Delayed response
              • 2. Factors that affect the skin whealing response
            • ii Specific methodologies
              • 1. Percutaneous (Prick) testing
                • a. Single percutaneous (prick) testing
                • b. Multi percutaneous (prick) testing
              • 2. Intradermal testing
                • a. Single intradermal testing
                • b. Intradermal dilutional testing
              • 3. Blended techniques of in vivo testing
              • 4. Scratch testing (mentioned only for historical purposes)
              • 5. Provocation
          • b. In vitro
            • i Principles of in vitro testing
            • ii Methodologies
    • 2. Principles of the allergen screen
      • iii Ingestants (Food Allergy)
        • 1. History
          • a. Food diary
          • b. Anaphylaxis
        • 2. Testing
      • iv Injectants
      • v Contactants
        • 1. Contact tests (patch)

E. Immunologic Evaluation (including rheumatologic)

      • i Humoral
      • ii Cellular

VI Allergy Treatment

A. Environmental control
B. Pharmacotherapy/pharmacology

      • i Antihistamines
      • ii Decongestants
      • iii Mast cell stabilizers
      • iv Mucolytics
      • v Leukotriene modifiers
      • vi Corticosteroids

C. Dietary control

D. Immunotherapy

    • i. Desensitization
      • 1. Route of delivery
        • a. Subcutaneous
        • b. Mucosal (e.g., sublingual)
      • 2. Mechanism of action/li>
      • 3. Indications/contraindications
      • 4. Antigen dosing
        • a. Starting dose
        • b. Escalation
        • c. Maintenance
        • d Withdrawal
      • 5. Mixing of treatment vial
      • 6. Duration of therapy
      • 7. Outcomes of immunotherapy
    • ii Monoclonal antibody

VII Allergy Emergencies


A. Epidemiology

  • i Risk factors
  • ii Recognition
  • iii Differential diagnosis

B. Management

  • i High-risk population recognition
  • ii Preparation
  • iii Prevention
  • iii Intervention
scope

Register For Live Classes

2017 Advanced Course in Allergy & Immunology
December 6-9 | Vail, CO.
Learn more and Register

2018 Interactive Allergy & Rhinology Course
February 22-24 | Dallas, TX
Save the Date

2018 Basic Course in Allergy & Immunology
July 5-7 | Hollywood, FL
Save the Date

2018 AAOA Annual Meeting
September 14-16 | Philadelphia, PA
Save the Date

Clinical Insights With Wiley
Start Learning Now

Spotlight/News

Recent Blog Articles

The AAOA Wins Gold in Association TRENDS 2017 All-Media Contest

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Contact: Marina Fassnacht Director of Marketing…

read more

Alert: Nationwide Shortage of Sterile Water for Injections

Nationwide shortage of Sterile Water for Injections is affecting…

read more

Act Now to Avoid MACRA Penalties

Before the close of 2017, all physicians must take…

read more

* Adapted from Marple, BF, et al. “American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy CME Report: Allergy, Scope of Knowledge.” Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, 136(1): 8-10, 2007 Jan